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Learn About > Eco Corridors > Eco Systems
 
Fauna & Flora - Ecology - Eco Systems - Fishing - National Parks
 
  Eco Systems  
     
  The Amazon  
 
 
  The Amazon Forest occupies the North Area of Brazil, embracing about 47% of the national territory. It is the largest forest formation of the planet, conditioned by the humid equatorial climate. It has a great variety of flora and fauna, living between dense forests and open fields. Three types of forest are common: Dense forests on terra-firme. Várzea forests, periodically flooded and the Igapó forests, permanently flooded.  
     
     
  Semi-arid (Caatinga-Savanna)  
 
 
  The area of the Semi-arid considers all states of the Brazilian Northeast, plus the north of Minas Gerais, occupying about 11% of the national territory. The Northeastern Interior is characterized by the very thin vegetation of the Savanna. The highest areas evaporate less intense, located closer to the coast, being called Rural. The transition area between the Savanna and the Amazon is known as Middle-north or Zone of the grove of palm trees. Great part of the Northeastern Interior suffers high desertification risk due to the degradation of the soil.  
     
     
  The Cerrado  
 
 
  The Cerrado occupies the Brazilian Central Plateau. The continuous area of the Cerrado corresponds about 22% of the national territory and great parts are similiar to the Amazon and some smaller parts to the Caatinga and tothe Atlantic forest. Its climate is particularly outstanding, defining two seasons. The Cerrado presents varied physiognomies, going from clean fields to dense arboreal formation. This area is permeated by ciliary forests accompanying the water courses.

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  Atlantic Forest  
 
 
  Originally The Atlantic forest used to be the forest with the largest latitudinal extension of the planet, going about 6 to 32oS. At those days it covered about 11% of the national territory. Today, however, the Atlantic forest covers only 4% of the original size. The climate along its extension varies, ranging from super humid in the south to tropical humid and semi-arid in the northeast. The uneven relief of the coastal zone adds more variability to this ecosystem. In the valeys the trees grow a lot, forming a dense forest. At the coastlines this forest is less dense, due to the frequent fall of trees. In the south end the Atlantic forest gradually mixes with the forest of Araucarias.

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  The Pantanal of Mato-Grosso  
 
 
  This Swampland is the largest continuous flood region of the planet, covered by predominantly open vegetation occupying 1,8% of the national territory. This ecosystem is largely formed by sandy land pieces, covered with different physiognomies due to variety of flooding.

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Brazil´s Main Phytogeographic Regions